ebook

2ND WORLD CONGRESS ON
INFECTIOUS DISEASES
& ANTIBIOTICS - 2020
to be held on April 16th and 17th - 2020

  • 00

    days

  • 00

    hours

  • 00

    minutes

  • 00

    seconds

6 CME CREDITS

Quiz


Day - 02

17th April 2020

QUIZ - 1


Stepping up towards Successful Infection Prevention and Control

Hygiene and Infection Control

1. Which of the following are reasons for the decline of an aging body to fight infections?
  1. Weakened skin facilitates entry of micro-organisms into soft tissue and blood stream
  2. Diminished lung capacity and reduced cough reflex
  3. Protective mucosa lining of the stomach becomes weakened
  4. Poor nutritional intake compromises the immune system
  5. All of these are reasons for the reduced resistance to infections
2. What percent of older people admitted to hospital are malnourished?
  1. 10 to 20 percent
  2. 20 to 30 percent
  3. 30 to 40 percent
  4. 40 to 60 percent
  5. 60 to 80 percent
3. Which of the following are general factors that can increase the risk of infection in older people in community and hospital settings?
  1. Undergoing surgery or invasive procedures
  2. Presence of invasive, indwelling devices
  3. Underlying illness or disease
  4. Exposure to colonized and infected patients
  5. All of these are general risk factors
4. Which of the following are general factors that can increase the risk of infection in older people in community and hospital settings?
  1. Patient movement between wards and care facilities
  2. High bed occupancy rates
  3. Poor staff to patient ratios
  4. Inadequate cleaning supplies or equipment
  5. Lack of adequate resources for decontamination
  6. ALL of these are general risk factors
5. Which of the following statements is true about Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes)?
  1. Normal inhabitant of the upper respiratory tract
  2. Commonest bacterial cause of throat infections
  3. Can cause invasive skin / soft tissue infections
  4. Can cause bloodstream infections
  5. All of these statements are true
6. In which of the following ways can microorganisms leave the reservoir?
  1. Secreted via the skin
  2. Secreted via mucous membranes
  3. Respiratory tract secretions and droplets
  4. Blood and body fluids
  5. Hands of healthcare staff
  6. All of these are correct
7. Which mode of infection transmission is due to microorganisms being transferred to other patients from contaminated equipment and via the hands of healthcare staff?
  1. Direct / indirect contact
  2. Airborne
  3. Ingestion
  4. Inoculation
8. Pathogens expelled from the respiratory tract through coughing and sneezing are an example of what mode of infection transmission?
  1. Direct / indirect contact
  2. Droplets
  3. Ingestion
  4. Inoculation
9. What mode of infection transmission is due to contaminated hands being moved to the mouth?
  1. Direct / indirect contact
  2. Airborne
  3. Ingestion
  4. Inoculation
10. Which mode of infection transmission is due to splashes of blood/body fluids into the mucosa or the contamination of non-intact skin with infected blood/body fluids?
  1. Direct / indirect contact
  2. Airborne
  3. Ingestion
  4. Inoculation
11. Which of the following are basic standard precautions for infection control?
  1. Hand hygiene
  2. Personal protective equipment and clothing
  3. Safe handling of sharps
  4. Management of spillages (blood/body fluids)
  5. All of these are basic standard precautions
12. Which one of the following is considered the MOST important intervention in infection control?
  1. Hand hygiene of healthcare staff
  2. Personal protective clothing
  3. Safe use and disposal of sharps
  4. Prevention of infections associated with catheters
13. The advantages of alcohol hand rubs for hand hygiene and infection control are: (Check all that apply)
  1. Easier on the skin than soap and water
  2. Rapid hand decontamination between patients
  3. Portable – can be taken to point of care
  4. Works well with non-intact skin
14. What is the purpose of wearing gloves and gowns? (Check all that apply).
  1. Protect the healthcare worker
  2. Prevent transmission of pathogens
  3. Reduces hand washing requirements
  4. Looks professional and identifies healthcare staff
15. Nurses must wear gloves when: (Check all that apply)
  1. Handling sharp or contaminated instruments
  2. Risk of exposure to blood or body fluids
  3. Making beds
  4. Assisting with patient mobility
  5. Recording vital signs
16. What infection control precautions must be in place when patients are source isolated or cohort nursed?
  1. Hand washing facilities must be available with the room
  2. Alcohol hand rub must be available at the point of care
  3. Gloves and gowns must be available at the entrance
  4. Containers must be available for disposal of clinical and domestic waste
  5. Dedicated toilet facilities or commodes must be available
  6. All of these must be in place for effective infection control
17. Use of proton-pump inhibitors such as omeprazole has been implicated as a possible contributing factor in cases of infection.
  1. True
  2. False
18. Hand washing is NOT necessary when a nurse wears gloves.
  1. True
  2. False
19. Gloves must be put on immediately before contact / treatment, and removed and disposed of immediately afterwards.
  1. True
  2. False
20. Gloves can be reused after they are washed in warm soap and water.
  1. True
  2. False
21. Gowns should be worn with patients that perspire excessively to prevent contamination and infection transmission.
  1. True
  2. False
22. Gowns must be put on immediately before contact / treatment, and removed and disposed of immediately afterwards.
  1. True
  2. False
23. Gowns must be changed in between patients.
  1. True
  2. False
24. Infections show the same signs and symptoms in older people as with younger patients.
  1. True
  2. False
25. There is no relationship between length of hospital stay and risk of infection.
  1. True
  2. False
26. Steroids – used for treatment of asthma or rheumatoid arthritis – alter the immune system.
  1. True
  2. False
27. "Pilli" enable bacterial cells to move towards a source of nutrients or to evade the host’s immune response.
  1. True
  2. False
28. Endogenous infections are infections arising from the patient’s own resident bacteria.
  1. True
  2. False
29. Outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis, such as Norovirus infections, in which older people are severely affected, are difficult to control because the virus can survive in the environment for up to 12 days.
  1. True
  2. False
30. Few bacteria produce toxins.
  1. True
  2. False
31. Bacteria may possess capsules which help protect the organism from defensive actions of the immune system, and from the effects of certain antibiotics.
  1. True
  2. False
32. "Virulence" refers to an organism’s ability to cause infection.
  1. True
  2. False
33. All bacteria cause serious infections.
  1. True
  2. False
34. The use of indwelling urethral catheter to manage urinary incontinence or to monitor urinary output reduces the risks of infection.
  1. True
  2. False
35. Healthcare-associated infections are defined as infections caused by any infectious agent acquired as a result of a person’s treatment or intervention within a healthcare setting.
  1. True
  2. False


PROGRAM DIRECTOR:

Jerry R. Nedelman

Prof. Jerry R. Nedelman

Senior Director,
Pharmacometrics,
TB Alliance,
New York, USA.

Jerry joined the TB Alliance in February 2017. He applies quantitative clinical pharmacology and model-based drug development to characterize exposure/response relationships, evaluate the benefit/risk tradeoff, and inform clinical development planning. Jerry received his BA in Mathematics from University of Cincinnati in 1975 and his PhD in Applied Mathematics from Cornell University in 1981. After a postdoctoral fellowship at The Rockefeller University he taught at Clemson University and The State University at Albany. His academic research focused on mathematical applications in biology such as cell population dynamics and malaria epidemiology. In 1991 he was recruited to start a Pharmacometrics group in the Clinical Pharmacology department of Novartis (then Sandoz) Pharmaceuticals in New Jersey. He remained at Novartis for 25 years, fostering and applying modeling-and- simulation methodologies for preclinical and clinical drug development across all therapeutic areas, specializing in statistical modeling and population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics.

Program Schedule:

Time
04:30:00 pm - 06:30:00 pm
06:30:00 pm - 06:45:00 pm
Topic
Stepping up towards Successful Infection Prevention and Control

Enquiry