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Scientific Program

Viral Infectious Diseases are caused by viruses. Viruses are small particles of genetic material that are surrounded by a protein coat. Some viruses also have a fatty "envelope" covering. They are incapable of reproducing on their own. Viruses also participate in the process of evolution by transferring genes among different species. In biomedical research, scientists use viruses to insert new genes into cells. There are many types of viruses that cause a wide variety of viral diseases.

The most common type of viral disease includes:
Flu (influenza)
Human immunodeficiency virus
Human papillomavirus
Infectious mononucleosis
Mumps, measles and rubella
Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)
Viral hepatitis
Viral meningitis
Viral pneumonia

Bacterial diseases include any type of illness developed by bacteria, which are tiny forms of life that can only be seen with a microscope. Millions of bacteria normally live on the skin, in the intestines, and on the genitalia. Most of the bacteria do not cause disease, and many bacteria are actually helpful and even necessary for good health. Antibiotics are the usual treatment for bacterial diseases. When you take antibiotics, follow the directions carefully. Each time you take antibiotics, you increase the chances that bacteria in your body will learn to resist them causing antibiotic resistance.

Some of the bacterial diseases:
Typhoid fever

A parasite is an organism that lives in another organism called host (on a host or in a host) and it depends on its host for survival. Parasitic infections are a big problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Malaria is one of the deadliest parasitic diseases. Common parasitic infections are,

Tropical infectious diseases

Plant disease is an impairment of the normal state of a plant that disturbs or modifies its vital functions. Plant infectious diseases are caused by a pathogenic organism such as a fungus, bacterium, mycoplasma, virus and viroid, nematode. An infectious agent is capable of duplicating within or on plant and spreading from one susceptible host plant to another. Plant disease control is crucial to the reliable production of food, and it provides significant reductions in agricultural use of land, water, fuel and other inputs. Major plant infectious diseases are,

Black spot
Botrytis blight
Leaf spot
Powdery mildew

Blood borne pathogens are infectious microorganisms that are carried in human blood, and they are responsible for blood borne infections and diseases. These microorganisms have the potential to pass from one person to another by various routes, such as blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, open wounds, mucous membranes, and more.

Blood infectious Diseases include:
Dengue Fever
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Hepatitis A, B, and C

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection caused by bacteria, but some are caused by fungi and in rare cases by viruses. UTIs are among the most common infections in humans. Urinary tract is made up of kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Most of the UTIs only involve in the lower tract (Urethra and Bladder) than the upper tract (Ureters and Kidneys).

Treatment of UTIs depends on the infectious agents. Bacterial urinary tract diseases are treated with antibiotics. Viral UTIs are treated with medications called antivirals.

Digestive system infections are viral, bacterial or parasitic infections that cause severe damage to the system. These infections spread by direct contact or the fecal-oral route. Definitive etiologic diagnosis of infectious disease of the GI tract depends on demonstrating the pathogen in the tract or in the feces of the affected animal. Digestive system infectious Diseases includes Crohn-disease, Periodontal disease, Shigellosis, Salmonellosis, Typhoid fever, Cholera, Campylobacteriosis, Gastric ulcers disease, Clostridial food poisoning, Leptospirosis, celiac Disease, jaundice, Gastroenteritis, Dysentry, Appendicitis, esophageal cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, pharyngitis, hepatitis etc.

Antimicrobial agents are used for the treatment of bacterial diseases, and anthelmintics for parasitic diseases. There is no specific therapy for treatment of viral diseases.

Infectious diseases are caused by germs such as viruses, bacteria or other pathogenic microbes. Germs that can infect the respiratory system can often be spread through mucus and saliva (expelled when a person coughs, sneezes, talks or laughs).

Respiratory infectious diseases are further classified as an upper respiratory tract infection and a lower respiratory tract infection.

Tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, certain types of influenza, and the common cold are the Upper respiratory tract infections

LRIs are more serious infections compare to upper respiratory infections. The two most common LRIs are pneumonia and bronchitis. LRIs are the leading cause of death among all infectious diseases.

Skin helps to protect us from the germs, but sometimes it can get infected by microorganisms. Signs of a severe infection include are pus, blisters, skin sloughing, breakdown, dark, necrotic-appearing skin, or skin that becomes discolored and painful. Some common types of skin infections are,

Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin.

Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex

Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections

Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies

Treatment of skin infections depends on the cause. Bacterial infections are treated with topical antibiotics which are applied directly to the skin or with oral antibiotics. Some types of viral skin infections may improve on their own within days or weeks.

Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) include three types of infection:

1) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Sexually transmitted diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, and yeast. STDs are infected from one person to another through sexual contact. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are also known as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or venereal diseases (VD). The causes of STDs are. Some of Sexually transmitted diseases are Chlamydia, Genital herpes, Gonorrhea, HIV/AIDS, HPV, Syphilis, Trichomoniasis.

2) Endogenous infections: These infections are caused by overgrowth of organisms normally present in the genital tract of healthy women, such as bacterial vaginosis or vulvovaginal candidiasis.

3) Iatrogenic infections: Iatrogenic infections are associated with inappropriately performed medical procedures such as unsafe abortion or poor delivery practices.

Reproductive system infections are preventable, and many are treatable as well.

Microorganisms like viruses, bacteria sometimes invade the nervous system, infecting various organs and causing everything from mild disturbances to serious problems. The most common neuroimmune disorder is multiple sclerosis and HIV is the most common viral infection of the nervous system. In case of both disorders the progressive loss of neurons, resulting in significant cognitive and motor dysfunction. This study is to understand the pathophysiology of neuronal injury associated with these disorders to develop new diagnostic markers, therapeutic targets, and new areas of research applicable to other neurodegenerative diseases. Other neurological infections, meningitis, encephalitis, Neurosyphilis, Neuroborreliosis, Poliomyelitis.

Nosocomial infections refer to any systemic or localized conditions that result from the reaction of an infectious agent or toxin. Classification of NIs is critical for any surveillance program. Traditionally, a time cut-off of 48 hours after admission is used to differentiate between the hospital and community-acquired infections. This classification based on the pathogenesis of infection and the criteria for carrier status were offered. Three types of infections in ICUs including primary and secondary endogenous and exogenous infections are defined by carrier status. Only, secondary endogenous and exogenous infections are real infections acquired in ICUs. Various Preventive measures include Sterilization, Isolation, Hand washing, Gloves, Surface sanitation, Antimicrobial surfaces, Treatment.

Ophthalmic infections arise when harmful microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and viruses enter into any part of the eyeball or surrounding area of eye. There are many different types of eye infections generally caused infectious diseases are conjunctivitis, herpes simplex keratitis, Stye, Perorbital cellulitis. The choroids and retina are expensively vascularized structures and can accordingly be colonized by germs by the hematogenous route. Ocular candidiasis is outstanding amongst these colonisations because of its frequency; it can manifest itself as an endophthalmitis with a slow and hidden course.

Treatment is depends on the underlying cause of your eye infection. Most common bacterial eye infections clear up with antibiotic eye drops or ointments and compresses. Viral eye infections resolve on their own. In cases of severe viral eye infections, an antiviral eye drop may be prescribed.

This session focuses on the knowledge of infectious diseases that can spread between animals or even between animals and humans and to study of zoonotic infectious diseases, disease mechanisms, and prevention and treatment strategies

Aflatoxicosis, African swine fever, Akabane, Anthrax, Australian bat lyssavirus, Avian influenza, Blue green alagae, Blue toungue, Botulism, Baffalo fly, Camphylobacteriosis, Cattle tricks, Classical swine fever, Enzootic bovine leucosis are the Veterinary Infectious Diseases.

Many infectious diseases have similar signs and symptoms. Body fluid samples can sometimes reveal confirmation of the particular microbe that's causing the illness.

Blood tests, Urine tests, Throat swabs, Stool sample, Spinal tap (lumbar puncture) are the laboratory tests for diagnosis of infection.

Imaging scans, Biopsies are the procedures used to diagnose the infections in our body.

Antibiotics, Antivirals, Antifungals, Anti-parasitics, Lifestyle and home remedies, Alternative medicine are used to treat the infectious Diseases.

Despite remarkable advances in vector biology over the last two decades, vector-borne diseases remain a significant threat to human health worldwide. Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as ticks, mosquitoes, sandflies, and midges which transport pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for the development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, the appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies.

Drug interactions are nothing but change in a drug’s effect on the body when the drug is taken together with a second drug. A drug-drug interaction can delay, decrease, or enhance absorption of either drug. Drug action will be synergistic the drug's effect is increased or decreased or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own. Innovations in drug development have led to the introduction of many chemical entities in clinical practice over the past years. Drug Interactions in Infectious Diseases associated with antimicrobials, infection, inflammation, and Interactions with a number of drug classes such as non-HIV antiviral, antimalarial, antiparasitic, antihelmintic, macrolide, azalide and ketolide agents.

Procedures which are used to reduce the risk of spreading infections, particularly in hospitals and human or animal health care facilities are refers to Infection control. The purpose of infection control is to reduce the occurrence of infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are usually caused by viruses or bacteria and can be spread by animal to human contact, human to human contact, human contact with an infected surface, airborne transmission (tiny droplets of infectious agents suspended in the air), and finally by such common vehicles as food or water.

The goals of infection control programs are:
Immunizing against preventable diseases,
Defining precautions that can prevent exposure to infectious agents
Restricting the exposure of health care workers to an infectious agent.
Avoid areas with a lot of insects.
Do not engage in unprotected sex or in intravenous drug use.

Environmental (including climate) variations are linked to the (re)emergence and changes in the distribution and epidemic potential of several important infectious diseases. In some cases, the links are relatively straightforward, involving the exposure of naïve populations of humans and other biological taxa to unfamiliar pathogens. In other cases, relationships are confounded, such as by the movements of people, by ecological disturbance, by drugs resistance or by weakened immunity, for example due to co-infection and/or malnutrition. These increasingly significant health challenges are driving innovative responses involving emerging technologies as well as new approaches, systems and inter-disciplinary partnerships, in the process opening-up new avenues for research and effective preventative, diagnostic and mitigation measures.